How to Write a Letter

Courtesy Copies. If you’re sending this same letter to other people, let the recipient know with “CC:” or “Copies to:” followed by the names of the other recipients. List the names in alphabetical order by last name. This would go one skipped line beneath the signature block or one skipped line beneath your enclosure or separate mailing notation.

How to Write a Letter in Hassle-Free Steps (With Sample)

Knowing how to write a letter, whether business or personal, is a skill that everyone needs. Sometimes, these letters will be short, informal emails. Other times, they’ll be highly polished for corporate correspondence. Learn how to write a letter step-by-step, and review a printable sample letter. Then, explore best practices for writing both formal and informal letters.

  1. Sender’s address – To start, place your full address — including your full name, street address, city, state, and zip code — in the upper left-hand corner. If you’re not confident in writing addresses, learn how to write an address properly.
  2. Date line – Skip a line and specify the date. Use the date the letter is being written.
  3. Recipient’s address – Skip a line and place the recipient’s full address. For a formal letter, you’ll need to include the company name, the recipient’s name and title, and mailing address. For an informal, personal letter, there’s no reason to include the company name or job title.
  4. Greeting/salutation – Skip one more line to insert the greeting. This is called the salutation. In a formal letter, you use “Dear Mr./Ms./Mrs. Last Name:” Formal letters require a colon after the greeting, while informal letters take a comma. For an informal letter, it’s fine to use the recipient’s first name followed by a comma.
  5. Body of letter – Skip a line and begin the letter. In the body of your letter, separate your thoughts into paragraphs. You never want to draft one big block of text. For each new set of thoughts or ideas, begin a new paragraph. Leave a blank line between paragraphs.
  6. Complimentary close – Skip one of your final lines to include a complimentary close. The closing can be as simple as, “Sincerely,” “Yours truly,” “Regards,” or similar. There should always be a comma after the word or phrase you use to close a letter, whether it is formal or informal.
  7. Signature text – Skip three lines (where you’ll insert your handwritten signature), and type your full name. For a formal letter, you should also include your job title on the next line.
  8. Attachments – If you’re including any attachments with your letter, skip one more line and type “Enclosure.” If there’s more than one attachment, indicate how many there are in parentheses, as in “Enclosures (4).”

Choose the Right Font

For printed letters, fonts with serifs are your best bet. They just look sharp and they’re easy to read on paper. Fonts without serifs give your writing a bit of airiness and informality. For formal letters, you can’t go wrong with Times New Roman or Georgia.

Formal letter displayed.

Formal letter indentation.

With indented form, you indent the first line of a paragraph one inch. You also put your address and date so that it’s right justified. We’ll show you what that means here in a bit. Indented form was the way most people wrote business letters before the proliferation of PCs.

Type the Salutation

Recipient address in formal letter with indentation.

Skip a line and type your salutation. You can’t go wrong with “Dear [Name of recipient],”. If you know the recipient well, go ahead and use their first name. If you don’t know them well or the relationship is formal, use their title and last name, e.g., “Dear Mr. Ferguson,” “Dear Prof. Slater,” etc. Make sure you spell the recipient’s name right!

If you’re writing a letter that’s not directed to anyone in particular in the organization, go with “To Whom It May Concern,”. Ideally, before you write a letter, you’ll do your research so that it’s directed to someone specific. Use “To Whom It May Concern,” only after you’ve diligently looked into whom to address and ascertained that a specific name isn’t available.

With the salutation in formal letters, you can follow the name with either a comma or colon. Back in the day, it used to be strictly colon as it connotes more formality than a soft, breezy comma. Most business etiquette folks agree that commas are fine today. If you want to add some military seriousness to your letter, go with the colon.

Letter Writing

Letter Writing (e-book)

The world gets smaller and contacts get faster but whether it’s by computer or with pen-and-ink, the need to be able to communicate effectively in writing remains as important as ever. So whether you want to get in touch with a pen-pal, an e-pal, your bank manager, the editor of a newspaper, to make a complaint or declare your undying love, this guide will show you how to make the most of your correspondence. Direct and very accessible, this invaluable book will show you the general rules of good letter writing and will also provide specific advice on letters for specific occasions.

The Art of the Handwritten Note: A Guide to Reclaiming Civilized Communications

From overcoming illegible penmanship to mastering the challenge of keeping straight margins, avoiding smeared ink, and choosing stationery that is appropriate but suits your style, this is a powerful little guide to conveying thoughts in an enduring—and noteworthy—way. Just as you cherish receiving personal mail, you can take pleasure in crafting correspondence. Love, gratitude, condolences, congratulations—for every emotion and occasion, a snippet of heartfelt prose is included, sure to loosen the most stymied letter writer.

101 Ways to Say Thank You: Notes of Gratitude for All Occasions

Nothing says good manners like an elegantly crafted thank-you note, whether on paper or by e-mail. This refreshed and reissued etiquette classic–now updated with new information for the digital age–provides all the dos and don’ts, along with a perfectly phrased “thank-you” for every occasion, from weddings and baby showers to business interviews and charity events. This indispensable guide will make sure you’re never at a loss for words of appreciation.

The Write Start: A Guide to Nurturing Writing at Every Stage, From Scribbling to Forming Letters and Writing Stories

How do you raise children who love to write? Jennifer Hallissy believes that if you give children a solid foundation of writing basics, they will develop a love of writing that lasts a lifetime. In this book, she shares the secrets for supporting young writers, from the smallest of scribblers to middle-schoolers mastering script. You play an important role in nurturing your child’s writing development. You are your child’s first writing teacher, and their most important writing role model. From teaching your child how to hold a pencil and form the letters of the alphabet, to creating writing spaces and meaningful writing rituals at home, this book gives you all of the information and inspiration you need to raise a confident writer.


 the complete collection of theory and practical workbooks for perfect cursive and hand lettering

Spencerian Handwriting: The Complete Collection of Theory and Practical Workbooks for Perfect Cursive and Hand Lettering (e-book)

Easy to understand yet challenging to perfect, the Spencerian system was the standard for all personal and business correspondence in the 1800s. While modern students are barely taught cursive, for more than a century schoolchildren were dutifully drilled in intricate penmanship using this original primer. Now you can follow the step-by-step instructions and practice on the included workbook pages to learn: the seven Spencerian principles; heights and widths of letters; proper pen positioning; spacing between letters and words; finger and arm movements; optional shading effects. With Spencerian Handwriting, you can add a personal touch to all your handwritten letters and notes reminiscent of simpler, more elegant times.

The Art of Cursive Penmanship: A Personal Handwriting Program for Adults

​​The Art of Cursive Penmanship presents the subject of handwriting as a valuable and spontaneous skill for the adult. Authored by internationally recognized Master Penman Michael R. Sull, this book focuses on practical self-study techniques designed to accommodate anyone’s personal or professional schedule. With determined and consistent use, the daily application of Sull’s methods will result in the following penmanship improvements: letterforms, legibility, letter spacing, signature writing.

The Lost Art of Handwriting: Rediscover the Beauty and Power of Penmanship

Revisit the lost art of writing with these fun prompts, worksheets, exercises–and more!–and experience the many benefits of writing by hand, including increased focus and memory, relaxation, and creative expression. Writing by hand may seem passe in the digital age, but it shouldn’t be dismissed as simply an activity for grade schoolers–it offers countless benefits that have been studied by researchers, brain neurologists, therapists, educators, and others who are invested in helping handwriting thrive in an age of advancing technology. Handwriting may be slower than typing–but this gives your brain more time to process information, and stimulates neurological connections that aid in memory, focus, and composition. The process of handwriting can also have a soothing, calming effect and can even serve as a great form of meditation. And of course, it’s a great way of expressing your individuality and personal style.

Script and Scribble: The Rise and Fall of Handwriting

Steeped in the Palmer Method of handwriting she learned in Catholic school, Kitty Burns Florey is a self-confessed “penmanship nut” who loves the act of taking pen to paper. So when she discovered that some schools today forego handwriting drills in favor of teaching something called keyboarding, she was shocked.” “The idea that such a vital, simple, and frequently beautiful skill could be lost to future generations inspired her to investigate the history of writing by hand and its place in our increasingly electronic society. The result is Script & Scribble – a charming, fascinating exploration of the many facets of handwriting.” “Weaving together the history of writing implements and scripts, pen collecting societies, the golden age of American penmanship, the growth in popularity of “graphology”–Handwriting analysis – and the pockets of aficionados who still prefer scribbling on paper to tapping on keys, Florey poses the question: Is it true that writing by hand is no longer necessary in today’s busy world?


2022 Free Online Writing Courses to Improve Your Skills

Business Writing Techniques
Doane University via edX
Business Writing Techniques, will expand on the different communication styles and discuss the best practices of business writing by providing real-world scenarios and applications. Learners will examine how to use the 6 C’s to enhance their business messages. Learners will also discuss the proper etiquette of business writing and examine the use of emoji in business communications.

Best (REALLY FREE) Online Writing Courses in Apr 2022

There are many beginner professionals who want to improve their writing skills and get ahead in their writing careers. Moreover, it is also not feasible for working professionals to go back to school and improve their scribing skills. Thankfully, you will find many online writing classes on the Internet that help you polish and enhance your writing and authoring skills.

Following is a handpicked list of the Top Online Writing Courses & Certifications to gather knowledge about this subject. The list contains both open source (free) and commercial (paid) courses.

Free Grammar Courses

Perfect Tenses and Modals
University of California, Irvine via Coursera
In this course, you will learn about important intermediate verb tenses, including present perfect, present perfect progressive, past perfect, and past perfect progressive. You will also learn about common modal verbs used in English.
★★★★★ (7 ratings)

Effective Writing
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee via Swayam
The purpose of this writing course is to familiarise students with the nuances of effective writing so that they can better understand the subtle art of writing. It allows them to write with clarity, precision, and subtlety to express their ideas on various occasions while considering the concepts of appropriateness and accuracy.
★★★★★ (2 ratings)

English Composition
Arizona State University via edX
Learn to develop and express your ideas effectively for a variety of personal and professional purposes, audiences, and occasions in this comprehensive introduction to English composition credit-eligible course.
★★★★☆ (8 ratings)

Grammar and Punctuation
University of California, Irvine via Coursera
After completing this course, you will be able to: – identify the correct verb tenses to use – use commas effectively – utilize several different sentence types – write more effectively in English
★★★★☆ (33 ratings)

A Beginner’s Guide to Writing in English for University Study
University of Reading via FutureLearn
Learn how to use English for study at university or college and develop your writing skills, vocabulary and grammar.
★★★★☆ (22 ratings)

Verb Tenses and Passives
University of California, Irvine via Coursera
In this course, you will review the verb tenses that you learned in beginning English classes and learn about a few tenses you may not know very well.
★★★★★ (1 rating)

Jobs in Writing

Clear writing and communication skills are highly sought in a range of industries, including advertising, publishing, law, development work, and web design, making a writing background attractive to many potential employers

Taking an online writing courses will give students the communication skills they need in a career as a technical writer, digital copyeditor, or even author. With creative writing degrees, online writers workshops, and certificates from online writing classes or programs, students from all backgrounds get exposure to different kinds of writing, such as descriptive writing, and learn to give and receive critical feedback.

Currently, a search of “writing jobs” yields over 300,000 results for open positions ranging from Content Writer for online resources to a role as Elementary Reading and Writing Tutor, for those more interested in getting into the education field. Of those writing roles over 100,000 offer competitive salaries of $50,000 a year or more. Whether you’re interested writing a bestseller or giving yourself a competitive advantage in another field, strong writing skills are in high demand, making writing a highly marketable skill.

Writing for Online Engagement (Skillshare)

Writing for Online Engagement: Fiction in a Digital World

Moving on is another great course for beginners that is taught by Rebecca Sky in this 1 ¼ hour class on fiction writing in a digital age. Rebecca is an author of YA fiction and has also written for companies including Paramount, Sony, Microsoft, Lay’s, and Kraft.

So if your goal is to become a successful author of fiction and maybe even to publish your own stories yourself, this instruction concerning online engagement is a great class to take. It’s not just for beginners either, any level of writer wanting to better their skills can also take a lot from this class.

All levels
• 1 hour 8 minutes
• Published author teacher
• Focused on fiction writers
• Covers self publishing and promotion
• 8,000 students enrolled

Screenwriting: Building your Screenplay (University of Cambridge)

This course will teach you how to build a screenplay and the ins and outs of becoming a professional screenwriter. It’s an intermediate course that requires no previous knowledge of screenwriting. The course will focus on visual storytelling, screenplay structure, and character development and how those work together to convey the central meaning of your work. It will also teach you concrete skills like script-editing, time management, and how to work as a screenwriter. In addition you will gain knowledge the history of film and film theory.

This course is a specialization that’s part of a journalism study program from Michigan State University that’s designed to develop and enhance your understanding of the global field of journalism.

You’ll learn best practices and ethical standards for news gathering processes and compiling a news report through hands-on projects, peer-to-peer feedback, and issue exploration. You will also study journalism’s impact on societal issues and trends, plus explore career opportunities in newspapers, magazines, social media, Internet multimedia, television, radio, corporate, and community journalism.


Tips to Help Write a Paper On My Favorite Book

Reading a book exposes you to new ideas, and writing them down helps you understand them better. Writing a persuasive essay requires you to brainstorm your ideas and plan how to write an article on the book. You’ll need to have an outline, which is a foundation to create the content that should contain an introduction, main body, and a conclusion.

Here are some ways to assist you in coming up with a compelling essay on a book you love and encourage the reader to read it too.

  • Write A Captivating Introduction

Start with a memorable quote, question, or anecdote to get the attention of your reader. You’ll also have to write a little background information on the book and its author. Write a thesis statement that’ll clearly show your position and give an outline of your argument.

It’s in this paragraph that the specific and robust thesis statement appears. Have arguments that’ll support your thesis statement. To back up your opinions, use examples from your favorite book that’ll help illustrate your position.

  • Write A Paper for Me with The Main Body

After the introduction, get to the main body which usually has three paragraphs. It’s here that all your arguments supporting your thesis statement appear. In each of the items, write a specific idea starting with a topic sentence explaining the primary purpose.

You can use direct quotes but ensure you provide correct citations. It’s here you can share the feelings you experience from reading the book. Compare the book with others stating its strengths and weaknesses.

End the paragraph with a sentence that summarizes what you have been explaining. Transition smoothly from one item to another to make the essay comprehensible. If at this point, you worry about who can write a paper for me, you can search for help online on ideas on how to go about it.

  • Write The Conclusion

To strongly impress your readers, nicely wrap up your thoughts in the concluding paragraph. You’ll also restate the thesis statement and points supporting it. Another critical point is to give a summary of your opinions and evaluate the whole piece.

Emphasize the main points to show the significance of the book to anyone who reads it. A recommendation on whether one should understand your favorite book should appear here. Ensure you go through the essay to correct any mistakes and to make the ideas flow smoothly.

  • Where to Get Help to Write a Paper for Me

Writing a project that’ll entice the reader requires proper research and a great way with words. If who will write a paper for me is your primary concern, there’s immediate help. You can write and have an expert edit and proofread the piece for you.

A professional writer whose available anytime you need help is ideal for rescuing you when writing becomes hard. Your schedule may also be a tight one leaving no time to focus on a writing project. Take the step of soliciting help that’ll deliver your project as per the deadline you give.

The writer who would write a paper for me follows the instructions I give in the letter to provide quality work, and I can attend to more pressing issues. There’s no limit to the number of essays you need help with as that’s their profession, and they do it with a passion.


The habit of reading is not in many people; therefore, when writing your essay, make it enjoyable for the reader. Give clear reasons as to why the reader should get your favorite book to read it. Appeal to your readers’ emotions so that they can get to concur with your point of view.

Steps to Take During the Research of a Psychology Essay

“Garbage in, garbage out.” Whatever you find in your research of a piece determines the quality of information that you come up with. Use advanced research methods aids in making your essay more detailed and precise.

You will also have more evidence to strengthen your argument, thus making your essay more authentic. The process of research requires keenness and smartness to determine what is relevant to the topic and what is garbage. Here are some steps to take when researching to ensure you come up with the most compelling essay.

  1. Identify the topic

Using the guidelines given, come up with your topic of the essay within the confines of the assignment. Consider what you enjoy writing about when choosing the subject of the piece. This will make it more enjoyable for you as you work on the essay and also ensures that you come up with the best content.

You should also be original. Instead of copying a topic from somewhere, come up with your own. Creating your topic makes your work unique and all the more impressive. You should also choose a manageable subject with enough information to prevent straining to seek information on your essay. You are, therefore, recommended to do a preliminary search to ensure the information on the topic you have chosen will suffice.

  1. Identify research objectives

What do you seek to know about the topic? You can make research questions that will be answered during the research process to make data collection easier. Let’s say you are to write an essay on how a child’s upbringing is linked to schizophrenia; what are the conditions of a person with schizophrenia? Are there similarities in the upbringing of people with schizophrenia?

The objectives should be related to the topic of the essay and should act as guidelines for the research. Research objectives aid in choosing the best place and means to do your research. The sources are also dependent on the research objectives.

  1. Research methods

Determine the sources and methodology to find data of the research you are undertaking. Depending on the research objectives, you can choose to: conduct an interview, read journals, search on the internet, or observe.

You can combine multiple research methods to gather more in-depth information from your research. If you use the internet, be sure to highlight vital content to access them easily when making the essay. Quoting can be useful if the information is gathered from professional websites with articles on psychology. Ensure you give references and cite when necessary to avoid plagiarism.

  1. Research process

It is now time to begin the process of data collection from the various sources as determined above in the research methods. Gather data by answering the questions in the research objectives and linking them to the topic of the paper. Jot down the findings in points to make it easy to create a draft once finished with the research process. Ensure you get facts and figures that will support your argument throughout the entire essay. Proofread to be sure that all questions are answered and the points are adequate to create your first draft.

The research process is now complete. It is an essential part of a psychology essay and helps you understand more about what you write. Follow the above steps carefully for the best results.

Ethics and Decision Making

The nonconsequential philosophical approach to ethics would be my recommendation that Ravi should consider following when addressing the unfair trade that resulted from the growers to be underpaid for their cola nuts. According to the nonconsequential approach, an individual’s morality is judged on other principles and not on consequences. When taking part in an action individuals are often assured by duty and reason (Fail, 2014).  They, therefore, should undertake an approach that will ensure ethics is upheld if everyone decided to act in the same way. Above all when focusing on human beings, they should be treated as ends and not a means to an end.

The nonconsequential hypothesis adoption of Fairtrade practices ensures that the company is treating the small growers as an end and not a means to an end. Due to the Fairtrade principles that enable the company to fair trade with the growers in the long run, in which it allows the producers earn a fair wage for their cola nuts by providing a secure fair income to have a quality life. Furthermore, if the Fairtrade practices are adopted by all companies in the world ethics will reign in business practices. I will suggest to Ravi to adopt the Fairtrade practices to assure that the cola nuts farmers receive a fair wage in the future. Since the human rights group advocating for the farmers has a solid argument that is centered on the charter of Fairtrade practice. Zip -6 is an international beverage, and therefore they are bound by the world trade organization laws about the trade (“Fairtrade International (FLO): Fairtrade International,” 2016).

Since the organization adopted the 2009 charter of fair-trade principles, all companies under it are expected to adopt the same practices in their daily activities. The cola nuts acquired from Fairtrade are costly according to the company’s managers. When analyzing the cost, it shows that adopting will have a slight impact on the production cost of the drink. Therefore, adoption of the practices will not have a negative impact on the profits of the company. This mark indicates that the producers and the company all were bound by the fair trade practices in the production of the sports energy drink (“Fairtrade International (FLO): Fairtrade International,” 2016). Ravi’s adoption to this idea will attract customers who certainly live by the ethics. Good morals will shed light on the company, in which the Zip-6 will benefit from, a good reputation will be around, and free advertisement, therefore the profit will not be affected. Buying their products from companies that are directed by sound moral practices to those that engage in unethical practices. Therefore, Ravi consenting to the fair trade principles will result in an increment in their revenues and market share. Lastly, on the aspect of the price the company has the option of negotiating with the producers. This fact is based on the fair trade practices allows them to come to an agreement that will benefit both parties (“Fairtrade International (FLO): Fairtrade International,” 2016)

In conclusion, Fairtrade practices have excellent partnership with a huge number of distributors and other companies. When Ravi adopts Fairtrade it’ll progress towards improvement; it will also provide proper living standards for the producers. As for the company that Ravi works for, it enhances it will earn its respect.

The Brief Wonderous Life of Oscar Wao

The author of the novel, Juniot Diaz was born in the Dominican Republic and raised up in New Jersey. He wrote the book “The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao” and it won the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Critics Circle Award, 2008. The novel is set in New Jersey in the United States and it’s more of fiction and fantasy. Most of the story is narrated by Yunior de Las Casas who was a college roommate of Oscar and dated Lola. The midway of the novel is centered on the lives of Oscar’s runaway sister, Lola, his grandfather, Abelard, his mother, Hypatia Belicia. The story is also about the meditation on storytelling, masculinity, oppression and the Dominican diaspora.  The book chronicles the life of Oscar De Leon and overweight Dominican boy who grew up in Paterson in New Jersey who is passionate about fantasy novels and fiction of science alongside with falling in love as well as the curse that has overwhelmed his family for the gene.

Oscar de Leon, who is nicknamed Oscar Wao, is obsessed with science and fiction together with comic fiction and so he lived a desperate life since he could not find a woman from his young age. Oscar attends Rutgers University after completing high school. He attempts to commit suicide after getting bored with a girl and was rescued by his sister’s boyfriend. He survived again after jumping on train and graduates after recuperating and went to teach at his former high school and eventually moves to Dominican Republic where he falls in love with a prostitute, Ybon. Ybon becomes kind to Oscar but she declined his regular romantic ventures. Despite the individual powers that possessed by Oscar, he was over-controlled by the power of love due to the reason that he had powers of negotiation to persuade the girl of his interest.

Ybon’s boyfriend who is very violent as well as a police captain send two gangsters who kidnapped Oscar because he was jealous of him. Oscar was taken to sugarcane fields after by the goons and was beaten into a coma and was taken to heal in the United States by his family (Rebecca and Gehlawat). After recovering, Oscar borrowed money and went back to the Dominican Republic where he spends twenty-seven days pestering and writing Ybon. Ybon got horrified at first and softens and had sex with Oscar eventually and Ybon’s boyfriend goons and finds Oscar and killed him in the sugarcane field (Bruno).

The narrative power in Junot Diaz novel and the textual territory is convincing in such that in the numerous argument of the book conducted during public appearance and interviews, the author suggested severally that readers should have to consider the relationship between the narrator’s story and the authority exercised in the world. He asks, “Isn’t storytelling,” “the desire to put everything about the world in your power” despite his fear of the danger of the single voice when drawing his intention. This novel tries to incorporate and recognize the internal struggle as it incorporates the most paradoxical feature of the struggle. Junot talks about the competing of needs to challenge authority and to exercise it.

Yunior frames it in a way such that both reflects his own ambivalence toward those in authority and places it in a historical and quasi-mythic context before telling out the story of Oscar. Diaz knows better the dictators in the real world could be a greatly accomplished teller of tales. This is even seen in the ” The Feast of The Goat” in Mario Vargas Llosa’s  about the Trujillo’s assassins which occurred when the dictator attacked the church by turning himself into “one of the Satan’s most effective allies. The tyrant murdered, imprisoned, terrorized and subverted and erased the sense of identity of the immeasurable Dominicans. This was done for the purpose of stripping the Dominicans cognitive and physical control of their lives (Cengage).

From my opinion, dictators just know competition when they see it as well as same with the writers. “Like, after all, recognize like”. Diaz was aware of the Spanish and Latin word for dictator share the same Latin root as Edward Said handles on the relationship when he sees the sights “a constellation of linked meanings” of the statement “authority”, including “a power to enforce obedience or to inspire belief and a connection as well with author”. Said also finds the production, invention, and cause as the perhaps most pertinently to Yunior, “a right of possession”

The right of possession is also seen when Yunior identifies himself alongside with his own part of the story of Oscar “our narrative”, “my first draft”. He absolutely reasserts his authority when he refers to the writing process, other than his part in arranging the real textual landscape is mainly exposed when he comments on the basis of information and the events in the story. Yunior confesses openly in the footnote that as a narrator has exercised his power.

In conclusion, the novel “the brief wondrous life of Oscar Wao”, clearly shows how dictatorship manifests itself throughout the story. Yunoir does all means for him to be known as the owner of the book by saying, “my first draft” and this indicates dictatorship.

Aristotle on Friendship

“Friendship” is a term that originates from the Greeks in which they refer it as “philia,” meaning “getting together” (Helm). It describes the relationships endowed by various people towards each other. Aristotle describes friendship in three unique ways. He illuminates how friendship has created peaceful co-existence in the world. Aristotle was triggered by the curiosity to establish the factors that led human beings to coexist and relate to each other (Helm). As a result, he stated various notions concerning friendship and how people related to each other. For instance, in his two books VIII and IX, Aristotle devotes to writing about friendship and how Nicomachean Ethics influences them (Bussanich 668). In addition, he reveals various attributes that enable human beings into making friendship with each other.

Types of friendship

Aristotle reveals three classifications in which human friendship is based (Bussanich 668). These classifications are influenced by certain attributes that influence human beings to get attached to each other. The first attribute that binds people, according to Aristotle, is symbiosis (Bussanich 668). Symbiosis is where one person gets attached to another to benefit either materially or socially. According to Aristotle’s readings, it is evident that in today’s world, friendship is mostly based on this attribute. Most people who get entangled in such relationships are students, workmates, and business people (Bussanich 668). Another attribute that enjoins friendship is a good character. It is evident that a person with good character appeals more to the public and the vice versa is true. As a result, people with modest morals interact freely and end up making long-term relations. According to Bussanich, people tend to feel secure when they are in company with good people (668). Finally, people with pleasant attributes are likely to make friends easily. Pleasant attributes include good morals, sharp brains, and talents (Helm). That’s why musicians and sportspersons have large followers despite their social backgrounds. The three attributes that classify friendship are eminent in our families, workplaces, and public institutions as depicted by Aristotle in two of his books.

Arguments on the friendship

In his arguments, Aristotle states that true friendship should be based on goodwill and not on conditions (Helm). He states that true companionship should be fostered without conditions and friends should offer each other assistance without expecting perks. He further exploits this statement by claiming that such relationship should be bound by virtues. Friends should stand for each other despite challenges arising. According to Aristotle, such relations are eminent in our society. For instance, people prefer civil partnership where they benefit from each other. Aristotle argues that beneficial friendship is not bad as long as each benefits. However, he reiterates that selfless people should be careful to escape being misused by mischievous greedy people (Helm). In his arguments, he states that one should keep the circle of friends small to experience quality friendship. According to psychologists, human beings are attracted and influenced by people with common goals and ambitions (Helm). For instance, it is easier for school going children to make friendship with each other as compared to random kids in the streets. School going children are entangled in a paradox of getting educated and becoming successful in life. Thus, getting along with each other becomes an easy mantra. On the flipside, random children on the streets are prevented by social barriers such as family restrictions and insecurity. Thus, for people to get together and build friendship, there has to be something that unifies them.

Friendship in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

In the novel “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”, Huckleberry, a young man found himself in a dilemma in establishing real friends (Helm). Being born in a broken family where his mother died when he was a little boy, and his father being a drunkard, he lacked role models to emulate (Helm). This triggered well wishers to come to his aid. He got enrolled at the school as well as being groomed to be religious. He later escaped with the help of Tom Sawyer, a young man who had the freedom Huckleberry dreamt of. On his side, he felt uncomfortable living with the elder ladies who had lots of expectations from him. After realizing that they were unattainable, he decided to abscond and went to stay with Tom Sawyer (Helm). At first, Tom seemed adventurous and open-minded; however, things changed, and Huckleberry realized that Tom was exaggerating himself. He had a fake inner personality, and at times he forced Huckleberry on missions he had no interest pursuing. Their relationship was cut off when his father intervened and rescued him from the two elder ladies and Tom. In reality, Huckleberry realized that his father was not the real figure he needed to emulate, thus he planned to escape to a far island. On his escape mission, he met with Jim, a slave who was escaping to avoid getting sold. Jim was more open minded and gave Huckleberry space to make personal choices. However, he was opposed to unethical things that Huckleberry wanted to pursue. First, Huckleberry realized that true friendship was based on mutual understanding and respect. In all the people he had interacted with, he felt that Jim was the only human who met the threshold for being a true friend. Human beings prefer living in an environment they feel appreciated (Helm). In his first case, the friendship was based on pure good will where the two ladies wanted to help Huckleberry live an ethical life. His second relation with Tom was symbiotic since Tom wanted to benefit from Huckleberry by engaging his activities. Among the three personalities, Jim was the best as he wanted to stay with Huckleberry so as to assist each other in a positive way (Bussanich 668).

Samples of friendship from Odyssey

In Odyssey’s readings, goodwill friendship, that Aristotle talks about in his books, comes out clearly in Penelope’s case (Bussanich 668). Penelope had waited for 20 years with high hopes to see her husband. In such an instance, the lady was optimistic that despite the many years her husband was engaged in war, she still had faith he would return home. Although Aristotle does not bring this issue well, it is evident that such loyalty is rare in our current society (Helm). His son also acted as a shrewd manager by managing the home and keeping enemies at bay. Freewill friendship is eminent throughout the scenario as the son and some of the maidens took care of Odyssey wealth. However, some of his workers betrayed him by selling secrets to foreigners, sleeping with them and stealing some of Odyssey’s wealth.

In Aristotle’s works, this issue, in which friends betray each other after they feel that they have stood for the disadvantaged friend for so long, is not clearly covered (Helm). Although the maidservants were not friends, they shared a common shelter, and there was the need to safeguard each other interests. Betrayal is regarded as the worst form of friendship in which close friends act in unethical ways. In our case, it was unethical for the maidservants to sleep with outsiders and especially those regarded as enemies. Such cases are eminent in our current society where human beings are continuously displaying disloyalty to each other (Helm).


Examples of friendship from The Great Gatsby

In The Great Gatsby novel, it is evident that there exist several characters with diverse ethical attributes. Nick was an outsider from the Middle East who got influenced by Daisy and Tom Buchan into committing crimes. Daisy and Tom Buchan were bad drivers who committed several crimes including murder. Later, they influenced Nick into becoming a bad driver so as to conceal their deeds using his identity. Such kind of friendship is detrimental and can lead to innocent people suffering (Helm). In Aristotle written works, such relationships, where friends incriminate each other, are not well covered (Helm). Jordan, on the other hand, got involved in unfair competition. She got involved in cheating during the golf tournament. Besides, she got labeled as a hypocrite woman who would do anything to get a leeway.

Previously, Nick was working with Jay Gatsby, a great driver who worked hard to steer the American dream. At first, he felt that Jay was self-centered, but after the encounter she had with people from the east, it dawned on him that Jay was the better person. Jay Gatsby was honest, more loyal, and ethical. According to Aristotle thinking, it is evident that he showcased freewill friendship in his engagements with Nick (Helm). Tom and Daisy conspired to implicate Gatsby with death since he was the one driving the car at the time of the accident. Later, Nick felt that he had been contaminated with unethical behaviors and went back to Midwest to restore his morals. In Aristotle books, it depicts clearly that friendship influences one’s conduct and moral intensely (Helm). This is affected by the fact that most of the time I spent deciphering ideologies of one another.


Aristotle devoted two of his books to writing about friendship and how it occurred in the world (Helm). He made the adept analysis from three perspectives, in which most companionship arise from. In addition, he uncovered how Nicomachean Ethics influences most relationship. With the increase in population and migration of people from one region to another as it is evident in Gatsby readings, there is a high likelihood of people getting brainwashed and embraced into foreign societal communions and beliefs (Bussanich 668). Conversely, many people will get hooked with new friends as others will establish long-term companionship depending on interpersonal skills and attributes.