Steps to Take During the Research of a Psychology Essay

“Garbage in, garbage out.” Whatever you find in your research of a piece determines the quality of information that you come up with. Use advanced research methods aids in making your essay more detailed and precise.

You will also have more evidence to strengthen your argument, thus making your essay more authentic. The process of research requires keenness and smartness to determine what is relevant to the topic and what is garbage. Here are some steps to take when researching to ensure you come up with the most compelling essay.

  1. Identify the topic

Using the guidelines given, come up with your topic of the essay within the confines of the assignment. Consider what you enjoy writing about when choosing the subject of the piece. This will make it more enjoyable for you as you work on the essay and also ensures that you come up with the best content.

You should also be original. Instead of copying a topic from somewhere, come up with your own. Creating your topic makes your work unique and all the more impressive. You should also choose a manageable subject with enough information to prevent straining to seek information on your essay. You are, therefore, recommended to do a preliminary search to ensure the information on the topic you have chosen will suffice.

  1. Identify research objectives

What do you seek to know about the topic? You can make research questions that will be answered during the research process to make data collection easier. Let’s say you are to write an essay on how a child’s upbringing is linked to schizophrenia; what are the conditions of a person with schizophrenia? Are there similarities in the upbringing of people with schizophrenia?

The objectives should be related to the topic of the essay and should act as guidelines for the research. Research objectives aid in choosing the best place and means to do your research. The sources are also dependent on the research objectives.

  1. Research methods

Determine the sources and methodology to find data of the research you are undertaking. Depending on the research objectives, you can choose to: conduct an interview, read journals, search on the internet, or observe.

You can combine multiple research methods to gather more in-depth information from your research. If you use the internet, be sure to highlight vital content to access them easily when making the essay. Quoting can be useful if the information is gathered from professional websites with articles on psychology. Ensure you give references and cite when necessary to avoid plagiarism.

  1. Research process

It is now time to begin the process of data collection from the various sources as determined above in the research methods. Gather data by answering the questions in the research objectives and linking them to the topic of the paper. Jot down the findings in points to make it easy to create a draft once finished with the research process. Ensure you get facts and figures that will support your argument throughout the entire essay. Proofread to be sure that all questions are answered and the points are adequate to create your first draft.

The research process is now complete. It is an essential part of a psychology essay and helps you understand more about what you write. Follow the above steps carefully for the best results.

Ethics and Decision Making

The nonconsequential philosophical approach to ethics would be my recommendation that Ravi should consider following when addressing the unfair trade that resulted from the growers to be underpaid for their cola nuts. According to the nonconsequential approach, an individual’s morality is judged on other principles and not on consequences. When taking part in an action individuals are often assured by duty and reason (Fail, 2014).  They, therefore, should undertake an approach that will ensure ethics is upheld if everyone decided to act in the same way. Above all when focusing on human beings, they should be treated as ends and not a means to an end.

The nonconsequential hypothesis adoption of Fairtrade practices ensures that the company is treating the small growers as an end and not a means to an end. Due to the Fairtrade principles that enable the company to fair trade with the growers in the long run, in which it allows the producers earn a fair wage for their cola nuts by providing a secure fair income to have a quality life. Furthermore, if the Fairtrade practices are adopted by all companies in the world ethics will reign in business practices. I will suggest to Ravi to adopt the Fairtrade practices to assure that the cola nuts farmers receive a fair wage in the future. Since the human rights group advocating for the farmers has a solid argument that is centered on the charter of Fairtrade practice. Zip -6 is an international beverage, and therefore they are bound by the world trade organization laws about the trade (“Fairtrade International (FLO): Fairtrade International,” 2016).

Since the organization adopted the 2009 charter of fair-trade principles, all companies under it are expected to adopt the same practices in their daily activities. The cola nuts acquired from Fairtrade are costly according to the company’s managers. When analyzing the cost, it shows that adopting will have a slight impact on the production cost of the drink. Therefore, adoption of the practices will not have a negative impact on the profits of the company. This mark indicates that the producers and the company all were bound by the fair trade practices in the production of the sports energy drink (“Fairtrade International (FLO): Fairtrade International,” 2016). Ravi’s adoption to this idea will attract customers who certainly live by the ethics. Good morals will shed light on the company, in which the Zip-6 will benefit from, a good reputation will be around, and free advertisement, therefore the profit will not be affected. Buying their products from companies that are directed by sound moral practices to those that engage in unethical practices. Therefore, Ravi consenting to the fair trade principles will result in an increment in their revenues and market share. Lastly, on the aspect of the price the company has the option of negotiating with the producers. This fact is based on the fair trade practices allows them to come to an agreement that will benefit both parties (“Fairtrade International (FLO): Fairtrade International,” 2016)

In conclusion, Fairtrade practices have excellent partnership with a huge number of distributors and other companies. When Ravi adopts Fairtrade it’ll progress towards improvement; it will also provide proper living standards for the producers. As for the company that Ravi works for, it enhances it will earn its respect.

The Brief Wonderous Life of Oscar Wao

The author of the novel, Juniot Diaz was born in the Dominican Republic and raised up in New Jersey. He wrote the book “The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao” and it won the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Critics Circle Award, 2008. The novel is set in New Jersey in the United States and it’s more of fiction and fantasy. Most of the story is narrated by Yunior de Las Casas who was a college roommate of Oscar and dated Lola. The midway of the novel is centered on the lives of Oscar’s runaway sister, Lola, his grandfather, Abelard, his mother, Hypatia Belicia. The story is also about the meditation on storytelling, masculinity, oppression and the Dominican diaspora.  The book chronicles the life of Oscar De Leon and overweight Dominican boy who grew up in Paterson in New Jersey who is passionate about fantasy novels and fiction of science alongside with falling in love as well as the curse that has overwhelmed his family for the gene.

Oscar de Leon, who is nicknamed Oscar Wao, is obsessed with science and fiction together with comic fiction and so he lived a desperate life since he could not find a woman from his young age. Oscar attends Rutgers University after completing high school. He attempts to commit suicide after getting bored with a girl and was rescued by his sister’s boyfriend. He survived again after jumping on train and graduates after recuperating and went to teach at his former high school and eventually moves to Dominican Republic where he falls in love with a prostitute, Ybon. Ybon becomes kind to Oscar but she declined his regular romantic ventures. Despite the individual powers that possessed by Oscar, he was over-controlled by the power of love due to the reason that he had powers of negotiation to persuade the girl of his interest.

Ybon’s boyfriend who is very violent as well as a police captain send two gangsters who kidnapped Oscar because he was jealous of him. Oscar was taken to sugarcane fields after by the goons and was beaten into a coma and was taken to heal in the United States by his family (Rebecca and Gehlawat). After recovering, Oscar borrowed money and went back to the Dominican Republic where he spends twenty-seven days pestering and writing Ybon. Ybon got horrified at first and softens and had sex with Oscar eventually and Ybon’s boyfriend goons and finds Oscar and killed him in the sugarcane field (Bruno).

The narrative power in Junot Diaz novel and the textual territory is convincing in such that in the numerous argument of the book conducted during public appearance and interviews, the author suggested severally that readers should have to consider the relationship between the narrator’s story and the authority exercised in the world. He asks, “Isn’t storytelling,” “the desire to put everything about the world in your power” despite his fear of the danger of the single voice when drawing his intention. This novel tries to incorporate and recognize the internal struggle as it incorporates the most paradoxical feature of the struggle. Junot talks about the competing of needs to challenge authority and to exercise it.

Yunior frames it in a way such that both reflects his own ambivalence toward those in authority and places it in a historical and quasi-mythic context before telling out the story of Oscar. Diaz knows better the dictators in the real world could be a greatly accomplished teller of tales. This is even seen in the ” The Feast of The Goat” in Mario Vargas Llosa’s  about the Trujillo’s assassins which occurred when the dictator attacked the church by turning himself into “one of the Satan’s most effective allies. The tyrant murdered, imprisoned, terrorized and subverted and erased the sense of identity of the immeasurable Dominicans. This was done for the purpose of stripping the Dominicans cognitive and physical control of their lives (Cengage).

From my opinion, dictators just know competition when they see it as well as same with the writers. “Like, after all, recognize like”. Diaz was aware of the Spanish and Latin word for dictator share the same Latin root as Edward Said handles on the relationship when he sees the sights “a constellation of linked meanings” of the statement “authority”, including “a power to enforce obedience or to inspire belief and a connection as well with author”. Said also finds the production, invention, and cause as the perhaps most pertinently to Yunior, “a right of possession”

The right of possession is also seen when Yunior identifies himself alongside with his own part of the story of Oscar “our narrative”, “my first draft”. He absolutely reasserts his authority when he refers to the writing process, other than his part in arranging the real textual landscape is mainly exposed when he comments on the basis of information and the events in the story. Yunior confesses openly in the footnote that as a narrator has exercised his power.

In conclusion, the novel “the brief wondrous life of Oscar Wao”, clearly shows how dictatorship manifests itself throughout the story. Yunoir does all means for him to be known as the owner of the book by saying, “my first draft” and this indicates dictatorship.

Aristotle on Friendship

“Friendship” is a term that originates from the Greeks in which they refer it as “philia,” meaning “getting together” (Helm). It describes the relationships endowed by various people towards each other. Aristotle describes friendship in three unique ways. He illuminates how friendship has created peaceful co-existence in the world. Aristotle was triggered by the curiosity to establish the factors that led human beings to coexist and relate to each other (Helm). As a result, he stated various notions concerning friendship and how people related to each other. For instance, in his two books VIII and IX, Aristotle devotes to writing about friendship and how Nicomachean Ethics influences them (Bussanich 668). In addition, he reveals various attributes that enable human beings into making friendship with each other.

Types of friendship

Aristotle reveals three classifications in which human friendship is based (Bussanich 668). These classifications are influenced by certain attributes that influence human beings to get attached to each other. The first attribute that binds people, according to Aristotle, is symbiosis (Bussanich 668). Symbiosis is where one person gets attached to another to benefit either materially or socially. According to Aristotle’s readings, it is evident that in today’s world, friendship is mostly based on this attribute. Most people who get entangled in such relationships are students, workmates, and business people (Bussanich 668). Another attribute that enjoins friendship is a good character. It is evident that a person with good character appeals more to the public and the vice versa is true. As a result, people with modest morals interact freely and end up making long-term relations. According to Bussanich, people tend to feel secure when they are in company with good people (668). Finally, people with pleasant attributes are likely to make friends easily. Pleasant attributes include good morals, sharp brains, and talents (Helm). That’s why musicians and sportspersons have large followers despite their social backgrounds. The three attributes that classify friendship are eminent in our families, workplaces, and public institutions as depicted by Aristotle in two of his books.

Arguments on the friendship

In his arguments, Aristotle states that true friendship should be based on goodwill and not on conditions (Helm). He states that true companionship should be fostered without conditions and friends should offer each other assistance without expecting perks. He further exploits this statement by claiming that such relationship should be bound by virtues. Friends should stand for each other despite challenges arising. According to Aristotle, such relations are eminent in our society. For instance, people prefer civil partnership where they benefit from each other. Aristotle argues that beneficial friendship is not bad as long as each benefits. However, he reiterates that selfless people should be careful to escape being misused by mischievous greedy people (Helm). In his arguments, he states that one should keep the circle of friends small to experience quality friendship. According to psychologists, human beings are attracted and influenced by people with common goals and ambitions (Helm). For instance, it is easier for school going children to make friendship with each other as compared to random kids in the streets. School going children are entangled in a paradox of getting educated and becoming successful in life. Thus, getting along with each other becomes an easy mantra. On the flipside, random children on the streets are prevented by social barriers such as family restrictions and insecurity. Thus, for people to get together and build friendship, there has to be something that unifies them.

Friendship in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

In the novel “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”, Huckleberry, a young man found himself in a dilemma in establishing real friends (Helm). Being born in a broken family where his mother died when he was a little boy, and his father being a drunkard, he lacked role models to emulate (Helm). This triggered well wishers to come to his aid. He got enrolled at the school as well as being groomed to be religious. He later escaped with the help of Tom Sawyer, a young man who had the freedom Huckleberry dreamt of. On his side, he felt uncomfortable living with the elder ladies who had lots of expectations from him. After realizing that they were unattainable, he decided to abscond and went to stay with Tom Sawyer (Helm). At first, Tom seemed adventurous and open-minded; however, things changed, and Huckleberry realized that Tom was exaggerating himself. He had a fake inner personality, and at times he forced Huckleberry on missions he had no interest pursuing. Their relationship was cut off when his father intervened and rescued him from the two elder ladies and Tom. In reality, Huckleberry realized that his father was not the real figure he needed to emulate, thus he planned to escape to a far island. On his escape mission, he met with Jim, a slave who was escaping to avoid getting sold. Jim was more open minded and gave Huckleberry space to make personal choices. However, he was opposed to unethical things that Huckleberry wanted to pursue. First, Huckleberry realized that true friendship was based on mutual understanding and respect. In all the people he had interacted with, he felt that Jim was the only human who met the threshold for being a true friend. Human beings prefer living in an environment they feel appreciated (Helm). In his first case, the friendship was based on pure good will where the two ladies wanted to help Huckleberry live an ethical life. His second relation with Tom was symbiotic since Tom wanted to benefit from Huckleberry by engaging his activities. Among the three personalities, Jim was the best as he wanted to stay with Huckleberry so as to assist each other in a positive way (Bussanich 668).

Samples of friendship from Odyssey

In Odyssey’s readings, goodwill friendship, that Aristotle talks about in his books, comes out clearly in Penelope’s case (Bussanich 668). Penelope had waited for 20 years with high hopes to see her husband. In such an instance, the lady was optimistic that despite the many years her husband was engaged in war, she still had faith he would return home. Although Aristotle does not bring this issue well, it is evident that such loyalty is rare in our current society (Helm). His son also acted as a shrewd manager by managing the home and keeping enemies at bay. Freewill friendship is eminent throughout the scenario as the son and some of the maidens took care of Odyssey wealth. However, some of his workers betrayed him by selling secrets to foreigners, sleeping with them and stealing some of Odyssey’s wealth.

In Aristotle’s works, this issue, in which friends betray each other after they feel that they have stood for the disadvantaged friend for so long, is not clearly covered (Helm). Although the maidservants were not friends, they shared a common shelter, and there was the need to safeguard each other interests. Betrayal is regarded as the worst form of friendship in which close friends act in unethical ways. In our case, it was unethical for the maidservants to sleep with outsiders and especially those regarded as enemies. Such cases are eminent in our current society where human beings are continuously displaying disloyalty to each other (Helm).


Examples of friendship from The Great Gatsby

In The Great Gatsby novel, it is evident that there exist several characters with diverse ethical attributes. Nick was an outsider from the Middle East who got influenced by Daisy and Tom Buchan into committing crimes. Daisy and Tom Buchan were bad drivers who committed several crimes including murder. Later, they influenced Nick into becoming a bad driver so as to conceal their deeds using his identity. Such kind of friendship is detrimental and can lead to innocent people suffering (Helm). In Aristotle written works, such relationships, where friends incriminate each other, are not well covered (Helm). Jordan, on the other hand, got involved in unfair competition. She got involved in cheating during the golf tournament. Besides, she got labeled as a hypocrite woman who would do anything to get a leeway.

Previously, Nick was working with Jay Gatsby, a great driver who worked hard to steer the American dream. At first, he felt that Jay was self-centered, but after the encounter she had with people from the east, it dawned on him that Jay was the better person. Jay Gatsby was honest, more loyal, and ethical. According to Aristotle thinking, it is evident that he showcased freewill friendship in his engagements with Nick (Helm). Tom and Daisy conspired to implicate Gatsby with death since he was the one driving the car at the time of the accident. Later, Nick felt that he had been contaminated with unethical behaviors and went back to Midwest to restore his morals. In Aristotle books, it depicts clearly that friendship influences one’s conduct and moral intensely (Helm). This is affected by the fact that most of the time I spent deciphering ideologies of one another.


Aristotle devoted two of his books to writing about friendship and how it occurred in the world (Helm). He made the adept analysis from three perspectives, in which most companionship arise from. In addition, he uncovered how Nicomachean Ethics influences most relationship. With the increase in population and migration of people from one region to another as it is evident in Gatsby readings, there is a high likelihood of people getting brainwashed and embraced into foreign societal communions and beliefs (Bussanich 668). Conversely, many people will get hooked with new friends as others will establish long-term companionship depending on interpersonal skills and attributes.